How Perfume is made?

HOW PERFUME IS MADE?


Have you ever wondered how these lovely smells are created? We accomplished it... And we want to share it with you. We hope you find it as fascinating as we did. Enjoy!


Ingredients:














Perfumes are made from natural components such as flowers, fruits, grasses, roots, leaves, spices, wood, gums, resins, twigs, balsams and animal secretions, as well as resources such as alcohol, coal, coal tars and petrochemicals. All these ingredients require different methods of extraction to capture their essence. Some plants, such as lily of the valley, do not naturally generate oils. In reality, these essential oils are found in just around 2,000 of the 250,000 known flowering plant species. To recreate the scents of non-oily materials, synthetic chemicals must be utilised. Synthetic ingredients can also provide unique fragrances that are not present in nature.


The Manufacturing Process:

1. Collection

The basic ingredients must be delivered to the manufacturing centre before the manufacturing process can begin. Plant substances are collected from all over the world, and many are hand-picked for their scent. Animal products are made by extracting the animal's fatty constituents directly. The aromatic compounds, that used in synthetic fragrances are created by a perfume chemist in a laboratory.

2. Extraction and their methods

Steam distillation, enfleurage, maceration, solvent extraction, hydrodistillation and expression are all processes for extracting oils from plant substances.

  • Steam distillation is the most widely used method for extracting essential oils. Steam is conducted through plant material stored in a still during steam distillation, converting the essential oil to gas. After that, the gas is cooled and liquified by pouring it through tubes. Instead of steaming, plant materials such as flower petals can be boiled in water to extract oils.

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  • Solvent extraction involves placing flowers in big spinning tanks or drums and pouring benzene or petroleum ether over them to extract the essential oils. The floral components disintegrate in the solvents, leaving a waxy substance containing the oil, which is subsequently dissolved in ethyl alcohol. The oil melts and rises in the alcohol. Heat is used to evaporate the alcohol, leaving a larger concentration of the perfume oil on the bottom until it has completely burnt off.
  • Flowers are laid on grease-coated glass sheets during enfleurage. The glass sheets are stacked in tiers between wooden frames. The flowers are then hand-removed and replaced until the grease has absorbed their scent.
  • Maceration is very similar to enfleurage, with the exception that warmed fats are applied to absorb the floral aroma. To extract the essential oils, the grease and fats are dissolved in alcohol, same as in solvent extraction.
  • The simplest and most ancient method of extraction is expression. The fruit or plant is manually or mechanically pressed until all of the oil is squeezed out in this method, which is now employed to get citrus oils from the rind.
  • Hydrodistillation method used to extract heat sensitive materials. A standard method of extracting essential oils from plant material such as wood or flower, and it is usually utilized to separate nonwater-soluble natural ingredients having a high boiling point. The procedure is completely soaking plant components in water, followed by boiling. This procedure protects the extracted oils to some extent since the surrounding water acts as a barrier to keep it from overheating. The essential oil vapour and steam are condensed to form an aqueous fraction. The benefit of this method is that the material can be distilled at temperatures lower than 100 °C.

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3. Blending, the creative process

Once the perfume oils have been collected, they are ready to be mixed together in accordance with a formula devised by a master of the trade called perfumer or as a "nose." It may take up to 800 distinct components and several years to produce a scent's particular recipe. Following the creation of the fragrance, it is blended with alcohol. The concentration of alcohol in a perfume can vary substantially. The majority of complete fragrances are composed of 10-20% fragrant oils dissolved in alcohol and a trace of water. The quantity of alcohol determines whether the mixed liquid is a cologne, eau de perfume or eau de toilette.

4. Aging process

The process of maturing a scent begins immediately after the perfume concentrate has been entirely diluted in alcohol, which might take up to a month. The ageing process continues for many months to even a year. It is a period when the scent is stored undisturbed in a cold, dark environment. This enables the alcohol and essential oils to form a stable, lasting connection. After the allowed time has passed, an expert is brought in to test the aroma, which will pass if it is now stronger than it was before the ageing process began. Adjustments, such as more blending, can be made at this point. Before being put into flacons, the aged perfume composition is normally chilled and filtered. The destructive effects of time are substantially minimized by not exposing the scent to air and storing it in the dark at cold temperatures. Today, chemists include antioxidants in all fragrances, such as Butylated Hydroxytoluene, which increases the scent's lifetime.

5. Quality control 

Quality control is crucial in the perfume manufacturing process. It ensures that the finished perfume doesn't contain any armful or undesired ingredients. Perfumery is depending on plant ingredient harvests and animal product supply, it can often become risky. Thousands of flowers are required to produce just one pound of essential oils, and perfumeries may be jeopardised if the season's crop is lost by a disease or bad weather. Furthermore, consistency is difficult to achieve with natural oils. To yield the exactly same scent year form year depends on the plant's location and growing environments, as the same species of plant raised in different areas with different growing conditions may not have the same aroma. Collecting natural animal oils has its own challenges. Many animals that were historically hunted for their oils are now listed as endangered species and can't be killed or harmed. Since 1977, sperm whale products such as ambergris have been illegal. Furthermore, most animal oils are very difficult and expensive to extract in general. Even though natural components are preferred in the greatest fragrances, synthetic perfumes have given perfumers more freedom and stability in their creative work. Synthetic fragrances and oils reduce the need to extract oils from animals and eliminate the chance of a poor plant harvest, saving a lot of money and many animals lives.
Quality control is tasked with all of the requirements of ISO Standards. This ensures that the system is reliable, that all relevant standards are met, and that customers are completely satisfied. All raw materials that enter a factory undergo rigorous checks before they are permitted to enter to production.
Manufacturers have their own strict Internal Quality Assurance System, which ensures that, whenever necessary, each and every product is prepared with the appropriate documentation including; an MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet), an Allergen List, a COA (Certificate of Analyses), an IFRA Conformity Certificate together with any other regulatory documentation that is required.


We hope you enjoyed reading this interesting post! If you would like to read more, we recommend the following articles:

https://agritech.tnau.ac.in/horticulture/extraction_methods_natural_essential_oil.pdf 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perfume
https://www.sciencedirect.com/


Best Wishes, 
ScentMania